History: The Mongolian People's Republic, formerly known as Outer Mongolia, lies in Central Asia with Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. It is one of the world's oldest countries. Much of the Gobi desert falls within Mongolia. The great Mongol warrior Genghis Khan (1162-1227) founded the Mongol world empire. It became an independent state in 1921. Political opposition was legalized in 1990. in July, Communists won the first free elections to the legislature. The constitution of 1992 abolished the 'People's Democracy', introduced democratic institutions and a market economy and guaranteed freedom of speech. The second free election in 1996 resulted in the defeat of the Communist Party which had ruled Mongolia for over 70 years. A reformist democratic coalition (with 50 seats in the 76-seat Great Hural) came to power.
Agriculture: Mongolia has been changed from a nomadic culture to one of settled agriculture and growing industries with aid from former USSR and East European nations. Livestock-raising is the principal occupation and comprises horses, oxen, sheep, goats and camels. The herdsmen are organized in collectives. State farms practice large-scale agriculture (crops: grains). Minerals include coal, fluorspar, tungsten, tin and copper.
Industry: Food processing, chemicals and cement.
Mongolia won admission to the World Trade Organisation in July 1996-the first transition economy of the old Soviet bioc to join the body as a new member. Mongolia's former communist rulers won a landslide victory in Parliamentary elections in July 2000.
Mission in India:
Embassy of Mongolia
34, Archbishop Makarios Marg
New Delhi - 110 003
Tel: 91 - 11 - 24631728, 24617989
Fax: 91 - 11 - 24633240
Indian Mission in Mongolia:
Embassy of India
Zaluuchuudyn Urgun Chuluu 10
P.O. Box No. 691, Ulaanbaatar - 13, Mongolia
Tel: 00 - 976 - 1 - 329522/ 24/ 28
Fax: 00 - 976 - 1 - 329532